The Nature of Glass

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Glass is a non-crystalline solid material that exhibits a reversible transition from a hard and relatively brittle state into a molten or rubber-like state. Glass is typically brittle and can be transparent or translucent.

It has many uses, including windows, containers, scientific instruments, lenses, and a variety of decorative products. 

The most familiar type of glass is soda-lime glass made from about 75% quartz sand (silica) plus lime (calcium oxide) and soda ash (sodium oxide or sodium carbonate).

Glass factories were set up where there was a good supply of fuel since silica requires very high heat to become molten. Soda ash was needed to lower the melting point of silica, and lime was added to rebuild the weakened silica network and make the glass more stable.

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Glass